Among domestic animals, a horse occupies a special place: no other quadruped, even a dog, was honored with so many poems and short stories, was not depicted so many times in sculpture and painting canvases, none took such a strong and honorable place in folklore.
Horses appeared on Earth long before humans. By the time the prehistoric man began to inhabit the caves, the horse has existed on Earth for about a million years.
There are many breeds of horses, differing from each other in color, size, temper and article. All modern horses evolved from three main prehistoric types: the Eastern wild horse (Przhevalsky), the extinct forest horse, and the southern Russian steppe horse (tarpan). Przewalski’s horse still lives and walks in the wild.
Despite the diversity of ancestors, currently the horse family has only seven species. The most famous of them is the domestic horse. It is represented by a variety of breeds, sizes and shapes. These horses live in all corners of the world. The remaining six species are wild horses. These include: three species of African zebras (Burchellova zebra, Grevy’s zebra and mountain zebra), two types of donkeys (African and Asian) and the last species is the Przhevalsky horse, sometimes called the Mongolian wild horse (the closest living relative of the domestic horse).
All members of the horse family – vegetarians, adapted to the speed run. They have long legs with a well-developed middle toe in the form of a hoof, a neck is long, and the head has a rather elongated shape. The lower and upper incisors bite the plants, while strong molars chew.
The horse is a herbivore, equipped with hooves of a mammal of the equus genus of the equine family, with the latter, in addition to domesticated horses, including wild horses, Przhevalsky horses and zebras. Horses are swift-footed animals of a group of runners and inhabitants of the steppes, so that they often could adapt to the feeding of scarce vegetation. True, thanks to the interbreeding of various horse species, hybrids could be obtained, but their descendants, however, in most cases proved incapable of breeding.
Horse development began 60 million years ago in America, from where these animals then spread throughout the world. The evolution of a particular breed depends primarily on local environmental conditions and climate and therefore turns out to be diverse. In America, horses died out about eight thousand years ago – three thousand years before they were tamed by Asian nomads.
Horses come in various stripes. So there are four main and eight derivative suits.
Black – head, torso, limbs, mane, tail – black.
Bayed – head and torso – brown, and the mane, tail and limbs are black or almost black.
Redhead — head, trunk, and limbs — redheads; the mane and tail are the same color, but may be lighter or darker.
Gray – a special suit. Horses of this suit are born dark gray, almost black.
As they mature, horses of this suit become brighter and become completely white by old age. The mane and tail throughout the life of a gray horse remains the same color as the whole body, but may be lighter or darker.
Read more about the main colors of horses
Karakova – the head, torso and limbs – brown, and the mane and tail – dark brown with a touch of black hair.
Solovaya – horses of light sand or cream color; mane and tail of the same color or lighter.
Bulan – the torso and head is mouse-or light sandy; legs, mane and tail – black.
The roan is a horse of red, black, black, bay, and other shades, with an admixture of white hair that does not change with age. Head and limbs retain the color of the main suit.
Chubarai – small and medium-sized red, black, brown spots on a white background or light on a dark.
Pinto – horses are red, black, bay, bay and other stripes with large white spots on the body and legs.
Savrasaya – torso like a bay, but faded coloring; lightening around the eyes, at the end of the muzzle and on the stomach; the mane and tail are black; on the back is a dark belt.
Horses have three main types of gait.
Step, lynx and gallop, which is divided into working (three-stroke) and race (four-stroke). The division of the types of gait varies by breed: the trotting horse itself barely gallop. Other horse breeds, such as the Arab, represent the trot as a gallop. Purebred horse reared for running gallop. A well-built horse on the move in full force can change the type of gait. Horse pitch can be assembled in the form of a medium or even strong race step. Gallop is also considered as running in different types of gathering: working, middle and extended canter is allocated. Only race gallop has no divisions.
Under natural conditions, the horse moves in four main ways (paces):
step, trot, amble and gallop.