Interesting about horses
The gradual development of society was accompanied by domestication of a variety of animals.
The word “horse” Eastern Slavs adopted from Turkic riders, it sounded like “alosha”. Turkic tribes roamed in the South-Russian steppes and were in close contact with the Slavs of the Dnieper. The words “horse” , “Mare” ,”stallion” pure Slavic origin, they are found in many languages of the Slavic peoples and its roots date back to the Indo-European proto-language.
People learned about the origin of the horse and its evolution in the bones. More than 60 million years ago there was a primitive predecessor of the horse – Barrameda. She looked almost nothing like a horse. A thick, longer than two meters Barrameda moved slowly on her short legs, ending five fingers with hoof claws. She ate shrubs and herbs.
Soon he begins to tame the horse. Scientists believe that the domestication of the horse may have started in Central Asia about 5 thousand years ago. Then it spread across the continent, and the horse was used on the battlefields and as a pack animal. It was an integral part of human existence until the beginning of the technical revolution. The first who tried to tame a horse, probably, were nomads of the Asian steppes. Here they caught wild horses and bred in captivity. Horses helped to drive cattle, they were harnessed in carts, used as draft animals.
Unlike the clumsy bellambi the modern domesticated horse – fast, hardy animal. Each of the 252 bones carries a certain load. The bones of the legs are adapted for fast running. Ribs protect the internal organs, but do not interfere with movement and breathing. A set of lumbar and thoracic vertebrae makes it possible to bend sideways, dramatically change the direction of running. Seven long cervical vertebrae allow you to lean low to ground plants, to water and raise your head high to the foliage of trees and all this is strong, reliable. Granite can’t withstand the pressure of a horse’s bones.
In the description of the horse is almost always called the suit first, and then other distinguishing features, if any ( markings on head and legs, color mane, tail and hooves). Suit the horse is determined by the combination of numerous genes that affect a variety of types of pigmentation. These genes, transmitted by inheritance, are enclosed in pairs of chromosomes: the modern horse has 64 chromosomes, half of which is inherited from the father, and half – from the mother.
For the Millennium that man is associated with the horse, he sought by introducing new breeds to develop her desirable qualities. In some breeds it was the size and strength, others speed. The breed is not an arbitrary term, and category of horses which are Studbook with pedigree. In tribal books are made parents with the most appropriate, according to specialists-horse breeders, characteristics. For the purest breeds to recognize an heir, ancestors must be registered representatives of the breed. Breeds and species of horses and ponies were usually bred within relatively small geographical areas, and the characteristics of the animals adapted to the specific needs of the local population.
In Rus ‘ the first state stud farm was organized near Moscow in the late fifteenth century.
The ancestors of modern horses are the Tarpan
There were so many of them in the steppes of Europe that in some places there were special groups of hunters, kept at public expense, whose duty was to destroy these animals.
The task was completed – the last Tarpan was seen just in Ukraine. Probably thought: why the wild Tarpan, Tarpan is, when domesticated, that is a horse.
In America the horse is entered rather late, and her coming was quite dramatic. When in 1519 Cortez landed on the shores of present-day Mexico with a detachment of five hundred and horses, the Indians took the horse and rider for a single terrible creature and fled in panic. Although they were more numerous, well armed and ready to fight for life and death.
However, a few of the later chiefs of the Indians began to realize that the horse is an ordinary living entity. To prove it to the tribesmen, they were ordered to carry on the cities of the dead horses, apparently, as the billboards that horse being the most common and also death. Over time, the Indians became accustomed to the new animal and learned, using a lasso to pull riders from their horses. Animals ran away in the Prairie, got used to free life and ran wild. So on the vastness of America appeared wild horses: in the Northern part they were called Mustangs. The Indians brought out of them small, but very strong “Indian ponies”. And cowboys – high-speed horse – Sprinter, able to rush a quarter of a mile at a speed of 70 km/h (this breed and called – “quarter mile”).
Mustangs were out of work, and it was decided to destroy them. Wild horses were driven into reservations and shot with machine guns, others were chased by planes and helicopters and, with sirens, on a low-level flight were driven to the plateau, where they were immersed in vans and sent for processing – for fertilizer. Only in 1959, a law was passed prohibiting the hunting of Mustangs, however, only from cars. And then, oddly enough, in the United States rose movement known as the “revolt of children.” Children were tortured, the Senate letters, posters, demonstrations, and adults could not resist! Was finally passed a law prohibiting the destruction of the Mustangs. Now Mustangs are protected even on private land, and the offender faces a large fine or imprisonment.
Horses are well adapted to high-speed running. This is facilitated by the structure of their legs – and they have single-toed, that is, they rest on the ground with a hollow bone cylinder, that is, the most profitable device that combines lightness with a large fortress. But still they are made for the earth, not for the cobblestone. Therefore, to protect the hooves, horses learned to Shoe. The most ancient form of horseshoes – “shoes” from a bast or hemp. The horses of Genghis Khan the hooves were wrapped around the skin. The Romans put on horses kind of sandals – metallic soles, which were tied to the hooves of belt buckles.
The first horseshoes with holes for nails found in Celtic burials (I thousand BC), but only with V digits they have won popularity. In the days of the knights of the horseshoe had a symbolic meaning, they displayed the dignity of the horse and rider. In punishment horseshoes filmed – one, two, three or all four. Ride a “barefoot” horse was considered a shame. In the XVI century, a horseshoe, not just to protect the hoof, and is able to cure or correct the deficiencies, something like an orthopedic Shoe for horses.
Nowadays horseshoes are made not only of iron. You can’t expect a horse to win a race if it’s wearing heavy horseshoes. Why race horses wear very light aluminum shoes. There are horseshoes not only nailed, but also glued to the hooves. In France patented a horseshoe of elastic material which follows the shape of the hoof, can be easily removed and fixed. Depending on the working conditions and time of year horses are shod on different horseshoes: summer, winter and special – sports, orthopedic.
Horses are vegetarians. Lower and upper incisors bite plants, and strong molars chewed. The fangs have only geldings and foals. Erasing, teeth continue to grow throughout life. It is possible to determine the age of the horse (with the exception of gift horses – they are, as is known, in teeth do not look). How is this done? To five years the horse has temporary incisors. The exact age of up to eight years is determined by the wear of the edges and sides of the incisors. In the future, they are guided by the nature of wear and the angle of the teeth.
The horse eats almost continuously, in small portions. The whole system of its digestion is adapted to the constant processing of food. Ignorance of the law is the power of the horse would hurt her. For example, if she has access to a large amount of hay, she can overeat, which leads to blockage of digestion with serious consequences.
The horse has a great flair and a strong sense of home – lost in the Blizzard steppe, coachmen, sometimes, threw the reins, relying on the horse, and she delivered the cart directly to the gate of the house. Perfectly guided horses and in the rain, and in a Blizzard, and day and night. No wonder folk wisdom says: “a Good horse will pull out of the water, out of the fire will make!”
During the war, horses, like people, understood the danger: the sounds of flying bombers, they hurriedly lay down, choosing the lowlands, or even ran into the trenches. A. I. Kuprin wrote: “a Horse is much more generous than a man, gifted with instincts and physiological feelings. The horse can hear better than cats, dogs sense of smell is thinner, it more sensitive to time and weather changes. Not her equal in the land animal.”
Really, how thin a horse’s hearing! It catches even the slightest rustle that a person is not available at all. Recognizes the sound of footsteps of the master and recognizes him even before he appears at the stable door. The structure of her ears is such that they not only capture sound waves, but also enhance them. Like locators, they turn toward the sound source. When the horse gets in an unfamiliar place, saying she’s “spinning” ears, i.e., carefully listening area.
No animal, except perhaps a dog, can compare with a horse in the subtlety of smell. Perhaps that’s why horses are so timid – they just feel better danger. This is especially true of horses older than 10 years, which besides deteriorating eyesight – so they are not guided by visual experience, but only the sense of smell.
By the way horses see the world not as gray as many animals, and color. Truth, blue and red color they distinguish between worse.