How to develop the Russian horse-breeding
Russian horse breeding should be divided into three completely independent types, equally oppressed by unfavorable economic conditions, but requiring completely different measures for its prosperity.
Thus, the breeding of mass, mostly peasants, did not constitute a separate sector of the economy, and only inevitable it belongs; the Patriarchal breeding, herd, surviving nomads and dying, like any Patriarchal form and lastly the horse breeding cultural heritage of large estates, which are private agricultural sector of the fishery.
The wealth of the Russian Empire horses very much; on the basis of the Washington Department of agriculture the total number of horses on the globe is determined in 60.455.044 of the head; of this number is in Russia 30.339.188, in other words, more than half. This is enough to understand why our country would be in charge of the world copresident.
Unfortunately, however despite a huge number of horse livestock, our horse breeding is in very poor condition and we have few noble horses. From the official data of the military horse census is seen that 86% of the total horse population of the Empire belongs to the peasants and only 14% of all other estates, and factory horses, fewer than 200 thousand heads! This fact is enough to admit our breeding predominantly peasant.
In the country of agriculture, which is undoubtedly Russia, the issue of horse breeding, as a branch of the national economy, is one of the most serious. Canevini the resources of the country ensured the success of agriculture, the horse is due to the well-being of the farmer, meanwhile our mass, peasant horse-breeding is in poor condition. Stunted, weak, mednarodna nag peasant farmer presents himself as the type of animal is expressed, is non-compliant with any intensive farming. The number of horseless households, which are deprived of to carry on the work of the farmer, systematically increases, annual growth has some downward trend, and thus horse breeding farm in two ways unsatisfactory, it does not only qualitatively but also quantitatively.
The system of the most variegated crosses with foreign breeds, moreover, indiscriminately in the whole area of vast Russia has done its job: all our native breeds, which until recently constituted the pride and wealth of the country, drowned in a sea of colorful mestizos, non-constant and therefore unable to transfer their qualities to posterity. So perished bitugu, obwiny Vyatka, die smudgy, kleper and a whole galaxy of steppe species, and finally the pride of the national horse breeding Orlov Trotter.
Horse breeding is in complete decline and not for nothing the repair issue is so concerned about the Government. At 30 mill. the equine population of Russia is difficult to collect under the saddle of the cavalry, tens of thousands of horses! Not thriving and we have a trotting horse, constrained to the narrow limits of the experimental system, harmful meditatii, which Trotter does not allow to translate into a separate breed.
The reasons for this situation of domestic horse breeding are numerous and began to emerge after the liberation of the peasants; between them a prominent place belongs to the lack of a certain plan in measures to improve the horse breeding of the country. Therefore, everything that has been done so far in this direction has not brought much benefit, all measures and initiatives were characterized by instability, theoretical, and in practice, in applications to our system of rural life, proved to be untenable.
Improving the mass of state stallions, even with their most expedient use, is a measure to the extreme slow and difficult to achieve. Suffice it to say that in Western Europe the number of state-owned producers is much higher than ours; so in France, for example, for three million total number of horses in the country about 4 thousand state-owned stallions, and we have 221/2 miles. horses (in European Russia), according to the past year, the State Horse kept for mating in public 42 factory stables (517 districts in 76 provinces on 3129 breeding points) 5390 stallions from which all thoroughbred 408, riding in General 2087, or more than 58%, trotting 1029 (almost 29%) and workers in 1764 or more than 49%. But, despite the small number of stallions, it should be noted that most of them are mestizos of various origin, is not useful for improving local horses. E.g., from 1764 jer. cold blood of certain breeds is only about 5%.
Transferred to us entirely from the West, the system of influence on horse breeding consists in a sweeping improvement by crossing, but what is advisable in a relatively small area of a Western European state, where the population is culturally, the economy is intense, the conditions are uniform and where there are no native breeds of different purposes, it will not always be appropriate for us, with the enormity of our spaces, the extensiveness of the economy, the chronic lack of fodder and the extraordinary diversity of conditions.
The example of Western Europe and the references to foreign States, so beloved by us, are sufficiently unsubstantiated and weak. First of all, Russia is an agricultural country, our main horse breeding is peasant, the horse population reaches 30 miles. goals and there are a variety of native breeds, created by the mind of the century. In such condition there is no Western European state to Raise our mass breeding by crossing is an impossible task, in 1-x for coatings of about 5 mils. mares, annually enrolled in mating, it would take up to 125 thousand stallions of cultural breeds, which is impossible for any state, in 2 crossing, as an independent factory method requires much more than our average horse owner can give and finally, the composition of mares should be suitable for crossing, since now it’s time to leave the outdated doctrine of Aristotle, who lived for 4 centuries before R. X., that the male is a representative of progress in the animal Kingdom.
Currently be considered proven that the Mare in the formation of the fetus has with a stallion ravnoznachnosti value.
It is obvious that the improvement of mass horse breeding should rest on completely different grounds than the improvement of cultural horse breeding.
Thus, it is clear that in the present state of things, one headquarters is powerless to have the desired impact on the ground, without the participation of the private horse breeding and is the latest, mostly trotting, with 12 thousands of little-constants stallions, too, no significant use to bring not able and all responsibility for the mass breeding of such agricultural countries, what is Russia, bear breed, nedorazvitie peasant colt often at the age of 2 years.
State-owned factories we have six: Khrenovoe Voronezh province (Bobrovsky County), diluting trotters and horses heavy working breeds; the Streltsy in Kharkov province (starobelsky district), once famous for its Oriental horse; Limarevsky where Orlov-Rostopchin horses and novoaleksandrovskaya, producing a half-breed. Derkul’s’ke plant breeding thoroughbred English horse, which, following the example of Germany, rides on behalf of the Treasury, and finally the sixth state plant Yanovsky, is Privalenko region (siedlecka lips., Konstantinovskogo the County), breeds a bit thoroughbred and mainly half-blooded horses.
The purpose of these plants, to produce stallions for manning stables sluchnyh not achieved, as most of those acquired by purchase and of course, it would be correct if they took on only expensive production of high-breed producers, to supply them on a preferential basis of private breeders, and these latter, having been sold on their stallions, would deliver them to the breeding depot and under the saddle cavalry.
Turning to private horse breeding in the area of a huge area 47 province of European Russia, we see that all the plants we have up to 2307, which contains 45,833 factory uterus. According to the richness of the factory material, as seen from the statistical work of Dubensky, the first place is taken by the Voronezh province. where on 243 plants contains 4126 mares; next comes the Tambov province. with 187 plants and 3467 uterus; Poltava 163 plants and 3696 mares, Kherson, Kursk, Samara, Orel, Saratov, etc.
Trotting variety is strongly predominant, accounting for the lion’s share of our cultural copresident. Horse breeding, significantly reduced in recent years, prevails only in the provinces of Poltava, Podolsk, Ufa, Kherson and Kiev. Work same sort, oddly enough for the country agricultural, is in disarray, so for example, in the Poltava province listed 761 Mare, 474 in Samara, Taurida 429, etc.
Among the most known plants trotting varieties call: backwater of His Imperial Highness Great Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich (this plant needs to be put in charge, as issued by its excellent education and the formulation of the case), the plant gr. I. I. Vorontsov-Dashkov, the late S. N. Konshina, N. M. Hemp, Nael, kN. L. D. Vyazemsky, gr. G. I. Ribotpierre, D. D. ANCOVA, vol. Orlov (Pady), L. V. and K. V. Molostvov, D. A. Rastorgueva, A. A. Stakhovich, N. V. Telegina, nayel. M. N. Terenina, G. M. Petrovo-Solo-vovo, I. K. Daragan, A. N. Voeykova, N. I. Tereshchenko, Duke G. M. leichtenberg, G. G. Eliseev, I – I. Butovich, Gr. A. F. Tolstoy, A. and V. 0. Sheremetev, and more. other.