The history of horse breeding was and will be determined by the desires of man. For centuries, man showed only gastronomic interest in horses. On horses were hunted, as well as on all wild animals.
In the period 4000 – 3000 years BC. er Asian nomadic tribes who lived near the Black Sea coast, began to contain wild horses in the herds – primarily for the sake of meat and hides. They also harnessed the horses in a sleigh.
The history of the horse is closely linked in its beginning with the history of the wheel. It was invented around 3500 BC in Mesopotamia, the birthplace of horse breeding. Trade flourished, horses began to sell. Over the next millennium, a wide distribution network developed in western Asia and southern Europe.
Soon the horses were involved in hostilities.
Around 3000 BC. horsemen of Kassites, Elamites and Hittites waged internecine wars.
Around 2000 BC The first chariots were dedicated, with the help of which the Hyksos methodically destroyed the Egyptians, with which the chariots had solid wheels.
Around 1600 BC. already the Egyptians invented the first wheels with spokes.
The chariots drawn by horses during the following centuries were the most important military weapons – up to the time when the cavalry appeared, and later the cavalry.
With the improvement of weapons and equipment, the cavalry became more and more important because it was more effective than the foot troops due to speed, striking power, and timing to attack. Plus, horsemen could act against the enemy, inaccessible to the chariot.
Over time, there was a need for heavier equipment for the rider, and hence, for larger and stronger horses. There were bits, an occasion and spurs that allowed to control a horse better at the expense of painful sensations. Initially, horse gear was made of wood, bone and leather. Around 1500 BC. er it was made of bronze, and later – of iron. The saddle first appeared in the Late Roman period, in the IV – V century BC, and the stirrup – even later.
In the Middle Ages, cold-blooded horses became important. The knights, with their heavy equipment, loaded with their weight the ancestors of the modern Shires and Cleddies. Imagine the surprise of the Europeans when, during the crusades, they discovered under their enemies light, thin-boned horses that have changed little since then – look only at the modern Arabs! These horses, quite rightly called cruise by the local population, were admired. They began to be brought to Europe and there are few breeds in the creation of which these horses would not participate.
With the development of the streets and the appearance of carriages in the 17th century, the need for fast and strong horses arose. In the eighteenth century, they discovered that Arabian and some other horses could serve to improve the local heavy (not to say heavy) breeds. Riding as a sport has become popular: with the emergence of a thoroughbred riding breed, the foundation was laid for many modern horse breeds that are actively used in sports.
But then there were tractors, cars, and interest in horses in industrialized countries fell, they became possible to meet only in rural areas. After the Second World War, there was again a demand for horses – already for the purpose of leisure and sports. In many countries, horse breeding has developed as a profitable business.