The story of a horse
History horse begins 65 million years (early Eocene) ago
With a small, like a small dog Eohippus, or hyracoteria, with a flexible arched spine and a long tail.
This animal leaned on the entire foot, not on the ends of his fingers, which he had four on the front and three on the hind legs.
His teeth were adapted for pinching and grinding leaves and young shoots. Another step in evolution – architeria, a small three-toed horse is the height of a pony. They come from America, from there migrated to Eurasia.
In the Miocene (26 million years BC) ancestors of horses began a new path of development
They adapted to living in open spaces and to eating grass. On average, they were close to the size of ponies, their skulls were like a horse, their teeth are close to modern. The greatest changes occurred in the structure of the limbs at this time. The paw was replaced by a leg supported by a hoof, adapted to jumping and rapid movements.
The next link in the evolution of the horse – hipparion, which resembled a small fleet-footed gazelles or three-toed horses of medium height
And only in the upper Pliocene (7 million years BC) appeared the first one-fingered horses, which replaced numerous and diverse three-toed hipparions, and in some places (Eastern Europe, Central Asia, North Africa) even lived with them simultaneously.
At that time, the savanna landscape (with lush vegetation and highly moist soils) was replaced by dry steppes, which contributed to the advantage of one-fingered horses over hipparions. In a short period of time horses settled in abundance in Europe, Asia and Africa. From them came the Tarpan, Zebra, and donkeys. The history of the horse is inextricably linked with the history of mankind. The horse was domesticated later than other kinds of farm animals – 5 – 6 centuries BC.
For a long time horses were used only as a productive animal
Domestication of horses can not be attributed to one specific place, it had several centers of distribution – both in Europe and in Asia. The role of these animals were very important for human beings, including for warfare, so the horse has evolved very rapidly. According to Zoological classification domestic horse belongs to the order of equids, the Horse family and to the genus of the horses. Since ancient times, horses have led a mobile lifestyle, and they have formed a relatively small digestive apparatus: a single-chamber stomach, with a small capacity; a voluminous large intestine.
Horses are very sensitive and mobile lips. A good sense of smell allows horses to swallow spoiled food and contamination to it. Device dentition, well developed tool and especially molar teeth, large salivary glands and a strong chewing muscles help the horse rastaplivat and are well prepared to assimilate the solid feed grains. These animals have well-developed cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The volume of circulating blood in the body is 7 – 11 % of the total live weight and depends on the age, type and breed of the animal.
Full circulation is completed in 25 to 32 seconds. Normal pulse rate – 36 – 44 beats/min. horses Breathe only through the nostrils, and the air flow is regulated by movable wing-shaped cartilage. The number of breaths, i.e., breaths at rest, within the limits of 8 – 16 per minute, and at such as fast pace horses horses in trot and gallop comes to 120. Horses have a highly organized nervous system. On external stimuli are easily produced conditioned reflexes that persist for many years. The majority of horses are good-natured and with the proper education to fully trust the person. Horses have a great memory, and they can remember the way they walked a few years ago.
At the age from one year to two years the horse comes sexual maturity, that is, fillies can be fertilized, and the colts develop into Mature spermatozoa. 3 – 3 years, when the body will become strong enough in mares occurs physiological maturity animals are able to reproduce themselves such, without prejudice to the development of the organism. Stallions of physiologically Mature in 3 – 5 years. In mares there is a pronounced seasonality of hunting: as a rule, it falls on the spring-summer period. The duration of the sexual cycle on average is from 20 to 23 days, of which hunting lasts 5 to 7 days with fluctuations from one to 12 days or more, the state of rest lasts 15 to 16 days.
At the onset of hunting mares can lose appetite, become restless, often urinate. On average, the duration of the foal in mares is 11 months with fluctuations from 320 to 360 days. Colt being hatched in one – two days more grasshoppers. At birth, the foal is 10 – 12 % of the live weight of the mother. More precocious are horse race and heavy breeds. In General, horses are characterized by the following biological features: Horses – late-maturing animals. Full development they reach age 5 – 7 years, depending on breed, sex, etc. Reproductive ability is preserved almost to the end of life. This also applies to working qualities.
Horses have a fairly long lifespan – an average of 20 years, but under good conditions they can live up to 25 – 28 years. Record life expectancy of the horse is 56 years. Life expectancy can improve the efficiency of breeding. The horses are almost all-round vision is 300 degrees. However, its sharpness is inferior to human, horses are relatively short-sighted. Therefore, they are often timid. These animals have colored vision, but less contrast than humans.
Horses are often hard to see in the dark. In General we can say that vision is the most weakly developed of sensory organs in the horse. Almost perfect pitch. The horse distinguishes between sounds that are not audible by man. It not only picks up the frequency of sound, but also distinguishes individual commands, melodies, differentiates them, learns. Very fine sense of smell, horses can detect smells that no person. Well developed tactile (skin) feeling, even more than a person. This gives the possibility of differentiated control of the horse. The milk content of mares increases to 6 – 7 lactation, and sometimes to 10 – 12.
The horse is the only species of agricultural animals with very high metabolic activity: respiration rate under load can be increased 10 – 12 times, pulse 3 – 4 times. This leads to the release of a huge amount of energy. Horses are practically the only species of animals capable of anaerobic respiration, i.e. oxidizing the decomposition of substances without oxygen. This allows them to produce a very large size and length of work. But the horse is often not able to regulate and inhibit the educational process energy, so it is very otdatsya complete exhaustion of the forces, until the death or inability to recover the animal.
Mental skills are very average horse, these animals Excel in the manifestation of rational activity is that the sheep
However, this factor is favorable for a person, because it is much easier to cope with such an animal.
The horse’s excellent memory. Many people believe horses are very intelligent animals because of the manifestations of this particular. The horses are well developed and fixed conditioned reflexes. This is based on almost all the use of these animals.
When performing intense work, a horse is sweating heavily to prevent overheating. This explains the great need for horses in the water and salt. In this regard, there is a danger of rheumatic inflammation of the hooves when watering a hot horse: a lot of water is absorbed into the blood at once, which increases the volume of circulating blood.
Tired heart can not cope with the increased load. As a result, there are stagnation of lymph. In the lymph is a lot of toxins – the products of lactic acid breakdown, so there are swelling. The horse has a relatively small stomach, so feeding can be done frequently, in small portions. Plenty of horses to feed, especially cereal feed. This is due to the peculiarity of the confluence of the esophagus into the stomach – filled stomach squeezes the opening of the esophagus. Therefore, horses cannot vomit. For this same reason, horses should never be fed low-quality forage.
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