The main senses of the horse
Various excitations coming from the external environment and internal organs of the animal are perceived by the senses and then analyzed in the cerebral cortex. The body of the animal has 5 senses: olfactory, taste, tactile, visual and equilibrium-auditory analyzers.
Each of them has departments: peripheral – perceiving receptor, medium – conductor, analyzing – brain center in the cerebral cortex. Analyzers, in addition to General properties, perceive a certain type of pulses – light, sound, heat, chemical, temperature, etc.
Touch the horse
Stroking the horse, you should slowly bring your hand with an effort to Pat it on the crest of the neck, where the teeth of another horse touch when grooming. In addition to the nerve endings, the main organ of the horse’s touch – vibrissae – long hairs around the eyes and mouth.
Touch – the ability of animals to perceive various external influences (touch, pressure, stretching, cold, heat). It is carried out by receptors of the skin, musculoskeletal system (muscles, tendons, joints, etc.), mucous membranes (lips, tongue, etc.). Thus, the skin is most sensitive in the area of the hoofed Corolla, eyelids, lips, as well as back, forehead. Tactile sensation can be diverse, because it occurs as a result of a complex perception of the various properties of the stimulus acting on the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
By means of touch is determined by the shape, size, temperature, consistency of the stimulus, the position and movement of the body in space. It is based on the stimulation of special structures – mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, pain receptors – and the transformation of the Central nervous system of incoming signals in the appropriate type of sensitivity (tactile, temperature, pain or nociceptive).
Have horses well expressed pain and tactile sensitivity. They can distinguish positive from negative tactile stimuli when applied to the skin at a distance of 3 cm from each other. As a result, horses learn and produce many conditional signals, which makes it possible to use them in sports and in the circus arena.
The smell of the horse
Smell – the ability of animals to perceive a certain smell in the environment. Molecules of odorous substances, which are signals of certain objects or events in the external environment, together with air reach the olfactory cells when inhaled through the nose (during food – through hoans). The olfactory organ is located in the depth of the nasal cavity, namely in the General nasal passage, in its upper part, a small area lined with olfactory epithelium, where the receptor cells are located. Olfactory epithelial cells are the beginning of the olfactory nerves, by which excitation is transmitted to the brain.
Between them are the support cells that produce mucus. On the surface of the receptor cells located 10-12 hairs that react to aromatic molecules. Horses have a very delicate sense of smell. They are able to catch smells that are not available to man, for example, these animals are able to identify the smell of the smallest impurities in the water, in the feed, which allows them not to swallow spoiled food.
Horse distinguish many more odors than man. Sniffing the excrement of the horse can know the grade, floor, be to see if this horse in the harem or on the hunt. Smells say a lot.
The taste of horse
Taste – analysis of the quality of various substances entering the oral cavity. The taste sensation occurs as a result of the action of chemical solutions on the chemoreceptors of the taste papillae of the tongue and mucous membrane of the oral cavity. At the same time there is a feeling of bitter, sour, salty, sweet or mixed taste. Taste sense in newborn wakes up earlier all other sensations.
Taste buds contain taste bulbs with neuro-epithelial cells and are located mostly on the upper surface of the tongue, as well as in the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. In form, they are 3 types: mushroom, roller-shaped and leaf-shaped. On the outside, the taste receptor is in contact with food substances, and the other end is immersed in the thickness of the tongue and is associated with nerve fibers. Taste bulbs do not live long, die off and are replaced by new ones. They are placed on the surface of the tongue unevenly, in certain groups and form taste zones, sensitive mainly to certain taste substances.
The language of the horse has receptors, like the human that help her to recognize tasty and edible plants from the poisonous. This is a very developed feeling in a horse.
A horse’s hearing
The ears of a horse can rotate 180 degrees, and studies show that a horse can pay equal and simultaneous attention to the sound perceived from behind and simultaneously from the front. Horses can detect sounds at a distance of 4 km, and higher frequency sounds. So they better hear remote quiet sounds.
Vision of the horse
The field of view of the horse almost 360 degrees. They have only 2 small blind areas – an arc of about 3 degrees directly behind the head and a small area right in front of the nose. Forward horses do not have binocular vision. Here they see objects three-dimensional, in depth. Color vision in horses is limited. However, at dusk, day and night vision does not work well. At dusk a horse is explained more nervous and cautious, because at this time, the predators often make an ambush.