The horse is man-made
Horses man virtually created
All contained on the stud farms horses are the product of centuries of breeding, selection. Their biological features include a relatively small digestive system: single-chamber stomach, with a small capacity; voluminous large intestine. Horses have very sensitive and mobile lips and excellent sense of smell, which allows them not to swallow spoiled food and impurities to it.
Horses are able to catch smells that are not available to man. A well developed tool, and especially molar teeth, large salivary glands and a strong chewing muscles help the horse to grind and are well prepared to assimilate the solid feed grains.
But the ability to regurgitate food from horses is completely absent, why feed them plenty can not, especially grain feed. This is due to the peculiarity of the confluence of the esophagus into the stomach – filled stomach squeezes the opening of the esophagus. For this same reason, horses should never be fed low-quality forage, and feeding should be done frequently but in small portions.
Have horses eloquently developed heart-vascular and respiratory system. The volume of circulating blood in the body is 7-11% of the total live weight and depends on the age, type and breed of the animal. Full circulation is completed in 25 to 32 seconds. The normal heart rate is 36-44 beats per minute.
Is highly developed in horses and the nervous system. This greatly contributes to the fact that conditioned reflexes to external stimuli are produced in them quite easily and then stored for many years. This is based on the use of these animals. Horses have a great memory, and they can remember the way they walked a few years ago. The majority of horses are good-natured and with the proper education to fully trust the person.
Horses breathe only through the nostrils, and the air flow is regulated by moving the pterygoid cartilage. The number of breaths, i.e., breaths at rest, in the framework of 8-16 per minute, and at such as fast pace horses horses in trot and gallop comes to 120.
The horse is gorgeous, almost perfect pitch, she perceives the sounds not audible by man. The horse not only detects the frequency of the sound, but also distinguish between individual commands, tones, differentiarum them know. Well developed have horses and tactile sensations, even better, than have rights. This further improves the differentiation of horse control.
The horses are nearly circular vision – 300*, which is certainly very convenient, but the sharpness it is quite noticeably inferior to the human. Horses are relatively short-sighted, so they are often timid. These animals have color vision, but less contrast than a human, besides horses for the most part don’t see well in the dark. In General we can say that vision is the most weakly developed of sensory organs in the horse.
Horse – an animal with very intense metabolism: respiration rate under load can increase in 10-12 times, pulse 3-4 times, which leads to the release of huge amounts of energy.
In addition, the horse is virtually the only animal species capable of anaerobic respiration, that is to oxidize decomposition of substances without access of oxygen
This, of course, allows it to withstand very large in magnitude and temporal extent of the burden, but the horse often unable to regulate and slow down the formation of energy occurring in her body, so she runs up to complete exhaustion and death.
The mental abilities of the horse are very average, but many people believe these animals are very intelligent due to their well-developed memory. In fact, they are superior in the manifestation of mental activity except that sheep. However, this factor is favorable for the person as it is much easier to cope with such animal.
A great need for horses in the water and salt due to the fact that when you perform intense work, they sweat a lot to prevent overheating. In this regard, there is a danger of rheumatic inflammation of the hooves when watering a hot horse: a lot of water is absorbed into the blood at once, which increases the volume of circulating blood, the heart tired by work does not cope with an increased load, and as a result there are stagnation of lymph. The lymph also contains a large number of toxins – the products of the breakdown of lactic acid, and therefore there are swelling.
In mares there is a pronounced seasonality of hunting: as a rule, it falls on the spring-summer period. The duration of the sexual cycle on average is from 20 to 23 days, of which hunting lasts 5-7 days with fluctuations from one to 12 days or more, the state of rest lasts 15-16 days. At the onset of hunting mares can lose appetite, become restless, often urinate.
On average, the duration of the foal in mares is 11 months with fluctuations from 320 to 360 days, there was a case of gestation of the fetus for 412 days. The young stallions are being hatched for 1-2 days longer than the fillies. The milk content of mares increases up to 6-7 days of lactation, and sometimes up to 10-12.
At birth, the weight of the foal is 10-12% of the live weight of the mother. More precocious are horse race and heavy breeds. At the age from one year to two years the horse comes sexual maturity, that is, fillies can be fertilized, and the colts develop into Mature spermatozoa. In 3-3.5 years, when the body is strong enough, mares comes physiological maturity – animals are able to reproduce their own kind without compromising the development of the body. Stallions physiologically Mature in 3-5 years, the full development of the horse reach the age of 5-7 years, depending on breed, sex etc. Horse – late maturing animals.
Reproductive ability of have horses persists almost until the end of life. This applies equally to the working qualities.
Horses have a fairly long lifespan, averaging 20 years, but under good conditions they can live up to 25-28 years. Record life expectancy horse – 62 year. Life expectancy can improve the efficiency of breeding.